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Family Names

Family History: basics and Individuals of Historical Interest
Family Names:
surname information associated with the main lines
Family Web Cards*: the detailed family tree
Naming conventions are outlined below, in Surnames and in the Index.

Please keep in mind: Until the 17th Century, surnames were only common with aristocracy. Even then, most used tiles and/or had nicknames given to them by many sources.

Titles, locations, parents, and physical descriptions gradually became surnames.
Examples shown with the popular given name of John (from the Hebrew Yochanan, meaning "Jehova has favored me with a son): John of Argyle (John d' Argyle), John the Tailor (John Taylor), John son of John (John Johnson), John who lives by the village Green (John Green), John the Tall man (John Talman).

Spelling was phonetic or spontaneous. The Rev. Doctor John Clarke used or dropped the final "e" many times in the Rhode Island Compact, which he authored... often on the same page. It wasn't important. Superstition inclined people to keep given names secret so demons had no power over them.

Commoners adopted surnames for clarity or to appear more sophisticated. Although most European cultures place the family or surname at the end, some cultures use the family names in front of the given name. Some changed their names when they changed positions or jobs... in 533 Mercurio became Pope John II, and the first to change his name.
In Sweden and Norway families took the name of the farm they worked on and it changed when they moved on... or were given generic surnames when joining the army. Slaves and servants often took the surnames of their masters.

People changed countries for work or religious reasons.
Translation into "foreign" languages may be literal (Schwartz becomes Black), phonetic, approximate (Houch becomes Hawk), abbreviated, or distorted into a more acceptable form. The German Bort became Bird in England. Bird became L'Oiseau in French. With so many people coming to this country to avoid persecution or begin a new life, many shortened long names or changed their names to something completely different. Scribes often recorded a name as they understood them. We have at least one known case of a English scribe recording his interpretation of the French ancestor's name as told to him by a German neighbor.

Members of the same family, and individuals, used different names or spellings at different times.
Spanish culture allows children to choose individually which family name to use. There may be many surnames within the children. When the church encouraged them to name all their sons Joseph and their daughters Maria, nicknames or middle names were necessary to differentiate them. Official or religious names were often quite different from the name the person went by every day; "Mary Elizabeth" might be known as Mae, Liz, Beth, Betty or even Sissy.

And of course the many types of patronymics; Thomas' son John might be; John ap Thomas, John Thomasson, John fitz Thomas, etc. But Thomas' daughter would not be Jane Thomasson. She would have been Jane Thomasdottor or Thomasdatter (son, sen, or, and er spellings were specific to a culture).

  • Example from Broken Arrow: Gustafson is a variation of Gustavsson, a Swedish patronymic name that comes from an Old Norse given name Gustaf or Gustav, which is composed of the elements Gaut ( Geatas in Old English) + staf = staff. Gaut (or Geatus ) is the tribe of Scandinavians to which Beowulf belonged, and the term used by the English to reference that race. The son of the man named Gustaf was called Gustavsson, Gustafsson, Gustafson. The Norwegians and Danes generally used and single -s and an -en rather than the -sson of the Swedes, ie. Gustafsen...The Norman-French used the prefix "Fitz" to mean child of... Many other cultures had their own prefixes to indicate of the father('s name) , including the Scots ('Mac'Donald), Irish ('O'Brien), Dutch ('Van'Buren), the French ('de'Gaulle), Germans ('Von'berger) Spanish/Italian ('Di'Tello) and the Arab-speaking nations ('ibn'-Saud).

Surname Meanings: What's in a Name? (was Broken Arrow Publishing, now at Ancestry.com).

    1. a note on some of the conventions used herein (also located in the Surnames Index):
      Surnames are in all caps. Place references (i.e., John of Aragon) and surnames that are patronymics (i.e., JOHNSON, and JAHNSDOTTER) are shown as subtitles, to lessen confusion with established lines of "proper" surnames. Spelling varies from source to source on known people. Names with multiple common spellings are noted and grouped together. Where the name is not known, the spouses name is used in square brackets - Ann [CAPITO], and known married names appear in parens - Ann (WILLIAMS) [CAPITO].
    2. Approximate dating is often necessary to establish time frames; if the speculation is within a couple years, the term "about" is used. If the time frame is within a longer period of time, the term "circa" is used.
    3. When other determining information is lacking, wives are considered to be the same age or slightly younger than their husbands, marriage dates default to a period approximately 20 years after birth of the younger individual, and children after that time at approximate one year intervals. There are frequent exceptions as women were frequently treated as property or the "coin of the realm." Widows of both sexes commonly remarried to nearest available person to gain or retain property rights and financial support. Known cases of this, children born after the death of a father, child brides, common law relationships and "out of wedlock" children are annotated were appropriate. An attempt has been made to use the proper titles for the time and language when indicating matrimonial arrangements (Mrs., Lady, Doña, etc.). Known concubines and other relationships are noted.

Family Surname origins A-C:

Arnold:

One source says from the German Are or Ahre, honor, faithful to his honor. An ancient Welsh family. The English line is descended from Ynir, King of Gwentland 1100.

The name Arnold was adopted by Roger in the twelfth generation from Ynir. Descended from Systyl ap Dyfnwall, through Vychan Arnholt ap Arnholt circa 1420, and Sybil (daughter of Madocap ap Eion ap Thomas circa 1390), Roger Arnold of Llanthony married Lady Joan GAMAGE (daughter of Sir Thomas de Gamage, Lord of Coytey) around 1467. Their son Thomas and Lady Agnes WARNSTEAD founded the Arnold Lord's of Bagber, Dorset, England.

Arnold is an English patronymic name from a Norman given name comprised of the Germanic elements arn = eagle + wald = rule. Occasionally it is derived as a place name to describe the man from any of the so-named locations in England and derived from Old English earn = eagle + halh = nook, hollow. Variations are Arnhold, Arnould, Arnout, Arnoil, Arnald, Arnaud, Arnall, Arnell, Arnull, Arnott, Arnatt, Arnull, Harnott, Harnett, Hornet, Hornett . Numerous cognate and Diminutive forms also exist.

ARNOLD family of Rhode Island

Jefferson Co., NY, and Cass Co., MI

Surnames associated with this Arnold line are: ANGELL, BIGELOW, BUCKLIN (BUCKLAND), CLARKE, COOK, COMSTOCK, CURTIS, DENS, FULLER, INMAN, LEETE, MANN, MOON, MOWRY (MOWERY), SINCLAIR (SINCLARE), THORNTON, WATERS, WHITFORD, WOODARD (WOODWARD).

Ayala: Dona Sancha DeAyala

Babcock Genealogy

Ballentine

The Ballentines (several spellings including Balantyne, Ballantine, etc.) were from Madison County, Iowa and Newport, Washington County, OH. They were closely associated wiht the Kimberlys and Tomlinsons in Cumberland, Maryland circa 1775, and later in Allegany, MD.

Ballentine Surnames Index Page

Ballentine Family 

Ballentine Branches Newsletter

Ballentine-Huxford Family History

Chesterfield Historical Society

Hacker's Creek HCPD  

Bath Co, VA, Homepage

Barrett
Barrett is an English patronymic name derived from the given name Bernhard, of Germanic origin, which was introduced by the Normans into England with William the Conqueror. Bernhard is derived from ber = bear + hard = hardy, and Barrett is a diminutive form. Barrett is occasionally derived from Middle English barat = trouble, strife, deception -- and was a nickname for the quarrelsome person. Also, it is occasionally an occupational name for the hatmaker, from Old French barette = cap, bonnet. Variations are Barret, Barrat, Barratt, Barritt. Cognate forms and diminutives are also abundant.

Notable Women Ancestors

Bauer is a German status name for a peasant or a nickname for the "neighbor, fellow citizen." Baumann is a variation of the German and Jewish nickname Bauer, which meant 'neighbor' or 'fellow citizen.' It was derive from German bauer, from bur = occupant of a small dwelling. Pauer, Gebuhr, Bauman are other variations. Cognates are Burmann, Bur, Buhrmann, Burmann, Bouwer (Low German); Boerma, Boersma, Bouman (Frisian); De Boer, Boere, Boerman, Bouwer, Bouwman, Bouwmeester, (Dutch); Bohr (Danish); Por (Hungarian).
baier = Bayer = man from Bavaria

Boone, Daniel

Bouganvilla, Louis Antoine

BYRD / BIRD / BORT
There are many BYRD / BIRD / BORT families in the same area of Virginia/West Virginia. Some English, some Swiss or "German." The spellings were often interchangeable or phonetic. Some are related by blood and intermarriage. Many were just neighbors sharing the same names. The Byrd's, the McClintic's, and the Lee's (some of the earliest settler's of Virginia) are all closely related and intermarried with the Capito's and Hart’s.

BIRD and BURD of New Jersey

Associated BYRD surnames: CARPENTER, CULPEPER, DEAN, HAMILTON, HORSMANDAN, KINKEAD, LEE, MAYSE, MCCLINTOC, MONTGOMERY, WILLIAMS

Bible
The surname BIBLE was originally spelled in Germany as BIEBEL. Most of the BIBLE descendants can trace their lineage back to a HANS ADAM BIEBEL, who was born in Goersdorf, Alsace (which was at one time part of the German Palatinate). He arrived at the Port of Philadelphia on November 30, 1750 aboard the ship Sandwich. After 1756, but before 1773 HANS ADAM moved his family to the Rockingham County area of Virginia. From there this family has migrated across the United States
.Bible Family Genealogy Page

Blount/Blunt: English descriptive name...derived from the Old French word blund -- which meant 'blond, or yellow-haired.’

Bowser/Bausser

English: nickname from the Norman term of address beu sire ‘fine sir’, given either to a fine gentleman (perhaps ironically), or to someone who made frequent use of this term of address. Compare Bonser.Americanized spelling of German. Bauser.Bauser is South German: nickname for a heavy drinker and eater or spendthrift, from an agent derivative of Middle High German buzen ‘to feast’.
For info on the BAUSSER (Bauser / Bowser) and JOHN (Jahn / Johns) lines 

The Richard Deming Family Home Page.

Descendants of George Benton Bowser FTM

TN's Bowser New Page 2

Bowser Covered Bridge ... Bedford County PA

Birdsong Ranch 

Brethren History & Genealogy

Dr. Sam Bowser's Site: Antarctica, marine biology, foraminifera, cell biology, primary

Bucklin: Variant of either English Buckland or Butlin, a nickname from Old French boute-vilain ‘hustle or beat the churl’, presumably denoting a severe or bullying master.

Byers is an English and Scottish place name for the man who lived by a cattleshed, from Old English byre = cattleshed, or as a place name for the man who hailed from a so-named location such as Byers Green (County Durham), or Byers (near Edinburgh). Byres, Biers are variations.

Capito/Capito

The Capitos came from Alsace to Berlin, Prussia and then to Franklin, Rockingham County, VA in about 1775. Italian (also Capitò): from a reduced form of the medieval Greek personal name Agapitos meaning ‘dear’, ‘beloved’.German: Latinized form of Haupt or Kopf ‘head’.

Eckert search

Sandra Duncan's purplevw's Home Page, a cousin through the CAPITO / HART line.

Associated CAPITO surnames: LORIMER, STEINBECK, ECKERT, KIMBERLY, MCELHOSE, MCCLEARY, and TOMLINSON. BYRD, CRAVENS, HART, HAMILTON, HERDERBERG, MEALS, STEINBECK, WEAVER, WHEATON, VANCE

Surnames fall into the following general family groups:

2) MORGAN, LINDSEY, REANBECK, Baugher (Bracher), GEISE (Geiser), Turveey (Thoene), Volke from Olean, NY; Titusville & Warren, PA.

3) HAWK, STEINBECK (Stenbock, Steinbach), CAPITO (Capiteau), BALLENTINE (Ballantine), JOHN (Johns, Jahn), BOWSER (Bauser, Bausser), KIMBERLY, Cowell, Crisman (Crissman/Christman), Stevens, ECKERT (Eckert, Eckhart), Herderberg, Tomlinson.

4) 1600-1800s: BYRD (Bird, Bort, Burd, Birt, etc.), HART, HAMILTON, Pemanpieh, Bougainvillea, Lee, Lorimier, McClintic, Scudder, Withers, Dean, Hull, Cravens, Tavenner, Swisher (Schweitzer), Atherton.

RootsWeb Lists -- Interactive Search

Carl is a variation of Charles, a French, Welsh and English surname, from the Germanic given name Carl = man. Carlson is a patronymic version denoting the "son of Carl." Karl , the German cognate form, was not in use as a given name during the Middle Ages, and is rare or unknown as a German surname since it was restricted to nobility. English variations of Charles are Karl, Karle, Carle, Carl . French forms are Charle, Charlon, Carle, Chasles, Chasle . Cognate forms are Carlo, Caroli, Carlesi, Carlisi, Carlesso (Italian); Carlos (Spain); Carles (Catalan); Kerl, Kehrl, Keerl (Low German); Karl (Jewish Ashkenazic); Karel, Kares (Czech); Karoly, Karolyi (Hungarian). Patronymic forms include Charleston (t-added); McCarlish (Scottish); De Carlo, De Carli, Di Carlo, De Carolis (Italian); Carlens (Flemish/Dutch); Karlsen, Carlsen (Norwegian); Karlsson, Carlsson (Swedish); Karlowicz, Karolak, Karolczak (Polish).

Castellana is an Italian cognate of the English (derived from the Normans) name Castellan, the occupational name for the governor or constable of the castle, or the prison warden. It is taken from Anglo-Norman-French castelain > Latin castellanus. Castellain, Castelein, Castling, Chatelain are variations of Castellan. Cognates include Chastel, Chastelain, Catelain, Castelain (French); Castelan, Castelin (Provencal); Castellani, Castellano (Italian); Castella (Catalan); Castelhano, Castelao (Portugal); Casteleyn, Castelijn (Flemish, Dutch).

Chamberlin: is a variation of Chamberlain, an English Occupational name that originally was the job held by the one who was in charge of the private chambers of the master of the house, and later was a title of high rank. Variations include Chamberlaine, Chamberlayne, Chamberlen, and Champerlen.

Chenoweth Name Meaning Cornish: topographic name from the elements chy ‘house’ + noweth ‘new’.

Clarke:

During the Middle Ages, the common pronunciation of -er was -ar, so the man who sold items was the marchant, and the man who kept the books was the Clark. Clerc was the origin, and designated a member of the clergy, hence cleric. At the time, the primary members of the literate class were the clergy, which in minor orders were allow to marry and have families. The term clerk came to designate any literate man. Clarke, Clerk, Clerke are variations. Cognates include Cler, Clercq, Leclerc, Leclercq, Lecler, Leclert, Leclair, Cloarec, Cloerec (French); Clergue (Provencal); Chierici, Clerici, Chierego (Italian); Clerc, De Clerck, De Clercq, De Klerk (Flemish, Dutch). Diminutive forms also exist in several languages.

Clan Clerich, or Clark, was one of the old 17 tribes of Clan Chattan. Ulva was the original home of Clan MacQuarrie. In about 1850 Francis William Clark, an Argyll landowner, built an impressive modern seat on the island, near the abandoned house of the 16th Chief.

Information from the Clark & Stoecker family website, © 1998 Clinton S. Clark.

Iowa Counties/Clark family. There are many historical figures in this section of the family. Specific individuals of interest will be added soon. The Clark's and Ferguson's are very closely related, as are the Curtis, Fuller, and Moon families.

Ancestors and Descendants of Joseph Clarke

CLARK (C462) at ROOTSWEB

Burgess Clark

Descendants of William Clark

James Freeman Clarke Center

Curtis Clark's Home Page

Sarah Clark - Batten Family Genealogy

Associated CLARKE surnames: ARNOLD, BEGGARLY, CALL, CAREWE, COOKE (KOOKE), COGGLESHELL, CURTIS, DYER (DYRE), FERGUSON, GREENE, HAMBY, HUBBARD, HUTCHINSON, KERRICH, MARBURY, MOON, PECKHAM, PHILLIPS, POTTER, REYNOLDS, SAYLES, SINCLAIR, SLOCUM, TAYLOR, THOMAS, WEEDEN

Crews is a patronymic form of the English place name Crew, from Crewe in Cheshire, which derived its name from Old Welsh criu = weir, ford. It was in reference to a wicker fence that was erected across the river Dee to catch fish. The man who removed from Crewe to another location was usually referenced by his place of origin by his new neighbors.

Crouse is a variation of the name Cruise, an English nickname derived from Middle English crouse = bold, fierce. Cruse, Crewes, Crews, Cruwys are variations.

Coggeshall Forum
English: habitational name from Coggeshall in Essex, named from an Old English personal name Cogg + halh ‘nook’.

Curtis: The Reuben Emerson CURTIS Genealogy
English: nickname for a refined person, sometimes no doubt given ironically, from Old French, Middle English curteis, co(u)rtois ‘refined’, ‘accomplished’ (a derivative of Old French court, see Court 1).English: from Middle English curt ‘short’ + hose ‘leggings’, hence a nickname for a short person or one who wore short stockings. This nickname was borne by William the Conqueror’s son Robert, but it is not clear whether it has given rise to any surnames.Altered form of French Courtois.

Cotton
English: habitational name from any of numerous places named from Old English cotum (dative plural of cot) ‘at the cottages or huts’ (or sometimes possibly from a Middle English plural, coten). Examples include Coton (Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Staffordshire), Cottam (East Yorkshire, Lancashire, Nottinghamshire), and Cotham (Nottinghamshire).French: from a diminutive of Old French cot(t)e ‘coat (of mail)’ (see Cott).

Descent of John COTTON from Henry III

COTTON ANCESTORS

Society of Mayflower Descendants - Missouri

The Allen Family

Cape Cod Genealogy Project

Collins/Cole/Coles: English Patronymic Name...Nicholas was an extremely popular name in early times -- in the 4th century, Nicholas was the patron saint of children. Many names were derived from Nicholas, such as Nichols, Nickles, Nickleson, McNichols. Collins derived from the ending of Nicholas.

Coleman is an English and Scottish patronymic name from the Old Irish given name Colman, from Columbun (from Latin Columba = dove). The Irish missionary to Europe, St. Columban (540-615) made the name popular. The name is sometimes derived as an Anglicized version of the Gaelic O Clumbhain (descendant of Clumhan). As an occupational name, Coleman was the man who gathered charcoal, from Old English col = coal + mann = man -- and somewhat rarely, the name for the personal servant of the man named Cole.

Family Surname origins D-J:

Dyer/Dyre
Dyer is an English occupational name for the man who dyed cloth, derived from Middle English dyer < Old English deag = dye. When of Irish heritage, Dyer is a variation of Dwyer, an Anglicized form of O Duibhuidhir, meaning "descendant of Duibhuidhir" whose name was composed of dubh = dark, black + odhar = sallow, tawny. Dyster, Dexter are variations, patronymic forms are Dyers, Dyerson

Dyer Families of New England by Frank Dyer: email: Dyerne @ Aol dot Com,
Member New England Historic Genealogical Society

DYER of Boston, Mass. & Rhode Island

DYER FAMILY GENEALOGY

Earhart is an Americanized version of Erhart and Erhardt, the German patronymic name from the elements era = honor + hard = brave. The name has also been known to be adopted by Ashkenazic Jews. Erard is the French version. This definition was originally missing over the Bermuda Triangle, but someone name Amelia kindly returned it.

Eckert search

Edgar is an English Patronymic name from the Old English given name Eadgar, composed of the elements ead = prosperity, fortune + gar = spear. Variations are Eagar, Eagger, Egar, Egarr, Eger, Edger, Adger, Agar, Ager, Adair, Odgar, and Ogier. (AElfweald "elf rule.")

Edwards: is an English Patronymic name from the Middle English given name Edward from the Old English eadward, derived from ead =prosperity + weard =guard.

Eggebrecht, from the given name comprised of the elements agil = edge, point (sword) + behrt = bright, famous. Eggert and Egbert are Low German cognates. Ebbrecht, Ebrecht, Ehebrecht, Eckerecht, Eckbrett, Ehlebracht, and Eilebrecht are variations.

Ferguson

Ferguson: a Scottish patronymic name, derived from the Scottish and Irish surname Fergus, from the Gaelic given name Fearghus. The Gaelic elements fear = man + gus = vigor, force are the elements of Fearghus. Variations are Ferris, Farris, Fergie (diminutive), Ferguson, Fergyson (patronymics). Many of the Irish versions are preceded by the O' -- which meant descendant of Fearghus. Alternate spellings: Fargarson, Fargason, Fergusin, Fergusson, Forgason, Forguson, Furgeson, Furgison, Furguson.

Clan Ferguson Society of North America

Ferguson Library Home Page

Famous Scots - Adam Ferguson

Ferguson Home Page

Foley

Foley: (southern) reduced Anglicized form of Gaelic Ó Foghladha ‘descendant of Foghlaidh’, a byname meaning ‘pirate’, ‘marauder’.(northern) Anglicized form of Gaelic Mac Searraigh (see McSharry), chosen because of its phonetic approximation to English foal.

 

Fuller:
English Occupational name for the dresser of cloth. The fuller scoured and thickened cloth by trampling it in water.

Fuller Family Forum

Fulkerson: Volkertson, Jacobus

Geise

Geise is a form of the name Gilbert, an English, French (Norman), and Low German given name from Gislebert, which was a Norman given name derived from the Germanic elements gisil = hostage, noble youth + berht = bright, famous. St. Gilbert of Sempringham (1085-1189) was responsible for making it a popular name during the Middle Ages. Geiselbrecht is the German cognate form and Geise is a diminutive version. Other cognates, diminutives, and patronymic forms also exist.

Giesbrecht is a Low German (German lowlands) cognate of the English surname Gilbert, which was Gislebert in Germany. And was an extremely popular name during the Middle Ages. Other Low German versions are Geiselbrecht, Gelbrecht, Gilbrecht, Gilbracht. Geoffrey Gilbert who died in 1349 was a representative in English Parliament in 1326, and it likely Giesbrecht as a cognate would have been in existance around that same time.

Green, when derived from an Irish context, is a translation of several Gaelic surnames originating from uaithne = green, and glas = grey, green, blue: O hUaithnigh was the surname that became Hooney, and glas became Glass. When an English surname, it is derived from the color as a Nickname or the man who liked to wear green, who played the "Green Man" in the May Day celebration, or who lived near the village green.

Variant of Green: Verdon, The French form of the name is Verdu/Verdun. In Catalan it was called Verdu (accent over the -u). The name can also be a French form of the Italian name Verde, from the Italian word verde = green. It is presumed to have been a nickname for someone who always dressed in green. The diminutive form of the French version was often Verdon. Variations of Verde are Verdi, Virde, Virdi, Lo Verde. French forms of Verde are Vert, Vert, Ver, Levert. Other diminutive forms of the name (as in Little Green, Greenie, Greenette, etc.) are Verdelli, Verdini, Verdicchio, (all Italian); Verdel, Verdelet, Verdet, Verdon, Verdonnet (French).

JOHN GREENE is known as John Greene of Quidnesset to distinguish him from another contemporary John Greene

Green Family Forum

My GREEN Family Ancestral Line; in JACK MOUNT'S HOME PLACE - (Green Genealogy)

Hamilton
Hamilton: is an English Place name, derived from its elements hamil =treeless hill + tun =settlement, for a literal translation of 'treeless hill town.' Hamilton was earlier described as Hameldon, Hambledon, and Hambleton.

Hart/Heart
Harts is a patronymic form of the English nickname Hart, which described the man who had some resemblance to the stag, according to his fanciful neighbors. What aspect of the male deer isn't clear -- or may have varied. When of Irish origin, Hart is an Anglicized version of the Gaelic name O hAirt, meaning 'descendant of Art' whose name meant bear, or hero. Variations of the nickname are Heart, Hurt, Hort, and of the Irish patronymic name: Harte, O'Harte, and O'Hart. When of Jewish heredity, Hart is a variation of several similar-sounding surnames.

Hart, John

DeHart is likely a spelling variation of DeHerdt, a Flemish cognate of the surname Hart, which is a nickname meaning "stag" from Old English heorot, which the medieval timers used to describe someone they thought resembled the male deer in some fashion.

Hawk

Hawk: from Middle English hauek ‘hawk’, applied as a metonymic occupational name for a hawker (see Hawker), a name denoting a tenant who held land in return for providing hawks for his lord, or a nickname for someone supposedly resembling a hawk. There was an Old English personal name (originally a byname) H(e)afoc ‘hawk’, which persisted into the early Middle English period as a personal name and may therefore also be a source.topographic name for someone who lived in an isolated nook, from Middle English halke (derived from Old English halh + the diminutive suffix -oc), or a habitational name from some minor place named with this word, such as Halke in Sheldwich, Kent.

Hawkins is a patronymic form of the English surname Hawkin, from the given name Hawkin, which was a diminutive form of Hawk. Hawking and Hawken are variations.

Higgs is a variation of the English surname Hick, from the medieval given name Hicke, which was a pet form of the name Richard. The Norman pronunciation of the R gave the English trouble, so they wound up placing an H as substitution in the cases of several Norman-based given names (Hobb for Rob, etc.) Hitch, Ick, Icke are variations. Diminutive forms include Hicking, Hickin, Hicken, Hicklin, Higgett, Higgitt, Higgon, Hitching, Hitchin, Hitcheon, Hitchcock, Hedgecock, Hitchcott, Hedgecote, Hitchcoe, Hickock, Hiscock, Hiscoke, Hiscott, Hiscutt, Hiskitt. Hickes, Hicks, Higgs, Hutches, Ickes, Hickeson, Hixon, Hitchisson are patronymic forms.

Houk Name Meaning Dutch (de Houk): variant of Houck 1, with the definite article, de.

Hutchinson
Hutchin is an English and Scot patronymic name from the medieval given name Huchin, which is a diminutive form of Hugh. Hutcheon is a variation found mainly in Scotland -- other variations are Hutchen, Houchen, Howchin. Hutchins, Hutchings are primarily found in Devon and Somerset as patronymic forms; Scottish patronymic forms include Hutchison, Hutcherson, Hutcheson. Hutchinson is found all over, but is most common in Northern Ireland and Northern England.

James is an English patronymic name derived from Hebrew Yaakov > Latin Jacobus > Late Latin Jacmus -- and believed originating in the Hebrew term akev = heel. A biblical story contains the mention of a heel in the birth of Jacob. In English, Jacob and James are distinctly separate names, but throughout the rest of the world, the two are considered the same name in cognate form. Cognates of James are Jacqueme (French); Jayume, Jaulmes, Jaume, Jaumes (Provencal); Giacomo, Giamo, Giacomi, Iacomo, Iacomi, Como, Comi, Cumo (Italian); Jaime (Spanish); Juame (Catalan). There are dozens of diminutive forms of James. Patronymic forms include Jameson, Jamisom, Jamieson, Jemison, Jimpson, Jimson, Gemson, Gimson (English); McKeamish, McJames, (Scot); Di Giacomo (Italian); Jaimez (Spanish).

Jenson/Janson
Janson is a variation of the English Patronymic name Jane, derived from the Middle English given name Jan, a variant of John. The feminine name Jane was not around during the period of time when surnames originated. Other variations are Jaine, Jayne, Jean, Jenne, Genn, Jaynes, Jeynes, Jannis, Janns, Jenness, and Jennison, among others.

Janzen is one of the many cognates of the Patronymic surname -- John -- which was from the Hebrew name Yochanan, meaning 'Jehovah has favoured me with a son.' It was adopted into Latin as Johannes and throughout the early Christian era in Europe (and still today!) enjoyed great popularity as a given name. In Wales the name is called Evan, or Ioan, in Scotland it is Ian or Iain, the Irish version is Sean, the German is Johann and Hans; in Dutch and Flemish it becomes Jan; in French it is Jean; Italian is Giovanni, Gianni, Vanni ; in Spain it is Juan; it Portugal John becomes Joao; the Greek form is Ioanni; Czechoslovakians have Jan, while Russians prefer Ivan.

In Poland it becomes Jansz or Iwan. The variation Janzen is found in several languages as a patronymic form of Jan (John), including Low German, Dutch, and Danish. Other German patronymic forms are Johansen, Jansen, Johanning, Jans, Jahns, Jantzen, Janz, Janning ; other Dutch forms are Jans, Johansen, Janse, Jansen, Janssen ; and other Danish versions are Johannesen, Johansen, Johnsen, Jensen, Joensen, and Jantzen.

John/Jon
John is one of the most popular of the medieval names, and took several forms even in medieval times. John derived from Hebrew Yochanan... Jahncke (Jähncke) is a diminutive form of the German (of Slavic origin) cognate of John, including Jann, Jahn (Low German). Other diminutive forms include Johnikin, Johnigan, Jonikin, Jonigan (English/Irish); Jeannet, Jeanet, Joannet, Jouandet, Jeandet, Jantet, Jentet, Jouanneton, Jeannin, Jouannin, Jouanny, Jany, Janny, Jeandin, Jentin, Jeannenet, Jeannot, Jouanot, Jeandon, Janton, Jenton, Jeannel, Jeandel, Jantel, Jeanneau, Jeandeau, Jenteau, Jeannequin, Jannequin, Johanchon, (French); Giovannelli, Gianelli, Giovannilli, Gianiello, Gianilli, Cianelli, Iannelli, Ianello, Ianniello, Iannilli, Zannelli, Zuanelli, Zuenilli, Vannelli, Nanelli, Giovannetti, Ninotti, Zanetello, Zanettini, Nannini, Notti, Noto (Italian); Jähnel, Jähne, Jäne, Jähndel, Jähnel (German); Juanico (Spain); Johnke, Jönke, Jenne, Jennemann (Low German); Jansema (Frisian); Jähncke, Jäncke, Jänke, Jahnisch, Janisch, Jansch, Jannuscheck, Janoschek, Jenicke, Jentzsch, Jentsch, Genicke, Genike, Gentzsch, Gentsch, Wahnncke, Wanka, Wanjek, Wandtke, Nuschke, Nuscha (German of Slav origin)

Johnson: English Patronymic Name:One of the earliest first names was John (gift of God), which in the 17th century replaced William as the most popular name for a male. As a patronymic name, Johnson from England and Scandinavia became the most widely found name in America, and its Welsh version Jones the fifth-most prolific.

Family Surname origins L-Z:

Linsey/Lindsey

Lindsey is a spelling variation of Lindsay, an English and Scottish Place name from Lindsey in Lincolnshire, first found in the form Lindissi, a derivative of the British name Lincoln. The Old English element eg =island was added since the area was virtually cut off from the surrounding fenland. Lincey and Linsey are other variations.

Lorimeir, Major Louis

Marshall: originally cared for the lord's horses, and acted as an early vet and farrier. Later on, the term evolved to describe an official in a noble's household in charge of the military affairs. It's an English Occupational name, either way.

McClintock and Latta Homepage

Moon: Irish: Anglicized form of Gaelic Ó Mocháin (see Mohan).English (of Norman origin): habitational name from Moyon in La Manche, named from the Gallo-Roman personal name Modius (from Latin modus ‘measure’) + the locative suffix -o (genitive -onis).English: nickname from Anglo-Norman French moun ‘monk’ (see Monk).Cornish: nickname for a slender person, from Cornish mon ‘thin’.Korean: variant of Mun.

Morgan

Welsh: from the Old Welsh personal name Morcant, which is of uncertain but ancient etymology.Irish: importation of the Welsh surname, to which has been assimilated more than one Gaelic surname, notably Ó Muireagáin (see Merrigan).Scottish: of uncertain origin; probably from a Gaelic personal name cognate with Welsh Morcant.

Reid/Reed

Ready/Reed: Scottish Patronymic Name...of the Scotsman Reedie in Angus. Also, in some cases, a Descriptive English name, as in -- always ready. Sometimes, meaning the descendent of Little Read (red), the nickname for a redhead, or the pet form of Redmond "counsel, protection." Requested by: Kathleen Cocuzzo.
Reid/Reed: Scottish Patronymic Name...English nickname from OE read (red) for red hair or complexion. (Gaelic Ruadhan, which was a diminutive form of ruadh = red. Anglicized versions from Gaelic that include O'Ruane, O'Rowane, Roan, Rowan, O'Roan, Rouane, Roane, Rewan, Ryoan, Raun, Roon.)

Redman is polygenetic, derived independantly from surnames Read and Roth. When arriving from the former it originates from the Old English read = red and designated the man with the red hair or ruddy complexion. The softening of the -E- sound in OE read to modern English red is not well-explained. Variations of Read are Reade, Reed, Redd, Reid, Redman, Readman, Ride, Ryde, and Ryder. Roth is the German Nickname and Jewish Assumed Ornamental Name for the person with red hair, derived from German rot = red. Variants are Rothe, Rother, and the Jewish variations are Roter, Roiter, Royter, among others.

Risenbatt: trail of our ancestors

Steinbeck

German: habitational name from any of various places called Steinbeck or Steinbach.South German: ocupational name for a mason.
Associated names include: Fulkerson, Pemenpeih, Lorimier, Bougainvilla, Kimberly, Ballentine, Capito, Byrd, Boone, Bauser/Bowser, Hart, Hawk, Hamilton, John.

Stuart/Stewart
Scottish: originally an occupational name for an administrative official of an estate, from Middle English stiward, Old English stigweard, stiweard, a compound of stig ‘house(hold)’ + weard ‘guardian’. In Old English times this title was used of an officer controlling the domestic affairs of a household, especially of the royal household; after the Conquest it was also used more widely as the native equivalent of Seneschal for the steward of a manor or manager of an estate.

Sweet: Swett is a variation of Sweet, an English Nickname for a popular person, derived from Old English swete. Given names Swet(a) -- masculine, and Swete -- feminine, were derived from this word, and survived into the early Middle Ages, and may be the source of the surname. Swett isn't the only variant: Swetman, Sweetman, Sweatman, and Swatman are among the English varieties. There are cognative versions many countries including Sussman (German), DeZoete (Flemish), and Susser (Jewish).

Bob Sweet - SWEETs in New Brunswick

Tackett family association

Tallman family

Tilston, Descendants of Richard de Tilston

Volkertson, Jacobus

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